Glossary PurityPlus has generated a glossary of words and phrases that are frequently used in the specialty gas industry and on our website to ensure that our customers are always up-to-date and familiar with everything they need to know. If you have any more questions about content on our website or would like additional info about the products and services we provide, you can contact us at 314.644.3500 or via email at email@example.com. A AA MACHINE – Atomic Absorption Test Instrument. Uses Purified acetylene and nitrous oxide or oxygen gas operation. AIR - Atmospheric - Pulled from the atmosphere and compressed into cylinders. Airco markets atmospheric air. Blended - A prepared mixture of nitrogen and oxygen in proportions similar to atmospheric. Synthetic - Same as blended. Ultra-Zero - Competitive nomenclature for our Hydrocarbon Free air. Customer should specify total hydrocarbons (THC) Zero - Air with a maxim total hydrocarbons (THC) of 2 ppm. ACETYLENE - see last page of glossary. AEROBIC MIXTURE - Gas mixture containing oxygen and used as a control atmosphere for the growth of biological cultures. AIR POLLUTION STANDARD - A mixture made to a mix tolerance of 5% and an analytical tolerance of 2%. ALLENE - Also called propadiene. Used in electronic applications. ANAEROBIC MIXTURE - Oxygen free gas mixture used as a control atmosphere for the growth of biological cultures. AMMONIA - For information obtain CGA Pamphlets G-2 and G-2.1. ANALYSIS - "CERTIFICATION" Report showing component concentration of a given mixture. Can also contain specific impurities such as moisture, hydrocarbons, etc. ANALYTICAL ACCURACY - Guaranteed accuracy of a mixture. APPLE GAS - Gas mixture containing 5% Carbon Dioxide and 5% Oxygen in 90% Nitrogen. Used as a standard for gas analyzers. ARGON - 99.9998% Purity available. See Research Grade Gas section, page 11. ARSINE - Used as a dopant in the electronics industry. B BANANA GAS - See Fruit Ripening Gas BLENDED AIR - See Air BORON TRICHLORIDE - Used in refining of aluminum and other metals for extinguish in magnesium fires, and in some plastic manufacture. BROMINE PENTAFLUORIDE - Used as a fluorinating agent. BROMINE TRIFLUORIDE - Used as a fluorinating agent. BROMOTRIFLUOROETHYLENE - Used as a chemical intermediate in polymerization. 1, 3 BUTADIENE - Limited shelf life under normal conditions. Used in the manufacture of synthetic rubber, plastics and resins. BUTANE - Used in calibration and for filling thermobulbs of temperature instruments. Used in some instruments as a heating fuel. Hospitals sometimes used Instrument grade. 1 - BUTENE - Chemical intermediate, and in mixtures for calibrating instruments - particularly in refineries. CIS - 2 BUTENE TRANS - 2 BUTENE - Chemical intermediate. Also as calibration mixtures. 2-Butene is a combination of CIS-2-Butene and TRANS-2-Isomers. C "CALIBRATION" MIXTURE - A mixture used to calibrate or check the accuracy of an instrument. It is a general term and can be almost any mixture of gases. CARBON DIOXIDE - Used in refrigeration, carbonization, inserting, blanketing, and neutralizing. Also used as the extermination gas for animals. CARBON DIOXIDE COLEMI\N GRADE - Used in a Coleman Instrument. Same as instrument grade. CARBON MONOXIDE - Uses: In mixtures for calibrating air pollution equipment; chemical manufacturing, metal smelting and as a fuel. CP grade is used as a calibration gas for BTU instrument. Some textile manufacturers may be using co for testing flame resistance of cloth. CARBONYL SULFIDE - Chemical synthesis. CERTIFIED MIXTURE - Meaning with analysis report of "certification". CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION - See data end of Glossary. CHLORINE - Water and sewage treatment, bleaching of pulp and paper, manufacture of organic compounds. CHLORINE TRIFLUORIDE - Uses incendiary and fluorination agent. CYANOGEN - Uses: Welding of heat resistant metals, rocket propellant, chemical intermediate and fumigant (as a fumigant it is used by large orchid growers in greenhouses). CYCLOPROPANE - Uses: As an anesthetic and in organic synthesis. CYLINDERS - Steel or Aluminum containers for pure and mixed gases, come in various sizes. D DEWPOINT - The temperature at which moisture is detectable in a gas. Dewpoint is determined by the amount of moisture present. Conversion table can be found in technical section. DEUTERIUM - Used in the pure state and in mixtures as a dopant. DIBORANE - Used in doping gas mixtures. 1, 2 DIBROMOTETRAFLOUROETHANE - Halocarbon 142B DICHLORODIFLUOROMETHANE - Halocarbon 142B, Freon 12 DICBLOROFLUOROMETHANE - Halocarbon 21, Genetron 21 1, 2 DICHLOROTETRAFLUOROETHANE - Halocarbon 114, Freon 114 1, 1, DIFLUOR0-1-CBLOROETIDINE - Halocarbon 142B 1, 1 DIFLUORETHANE - Halocarbon 1132A 1, 1 DIFLUORETHYLENE - Halocarbon 1132A DIMETHYLAMINE - Uses: By tanneries as a dehairing agent, in dyes, pharmaceuticals, soaps and cleaning compounds, in rayon manufacturing, and as fungicide. KNOW YOUR CUSTOMER! DIMETHYL ETHER - Uses: Refrigerant, solvent, welding & cutting fuel, and in the dye industry, 2, 2 DIMETHYLPROPANE - Uses: Manufacture of isobutylene; research on photo - conductivity and molecular structures. DOPING GAS - A gas mixture such as silane or phosphine in helium which is added to semiconductors during manufacture to impart specific electrical characteristics. DOT- Department of Transportation. DOT regulates packaging, the package itself, hydrotesting, shipping, and transport of all hazardous materials over public highways. All phases are covered in R, M, and Graziano’s Tariff 127 ''Hazardous Materials Regulations of the Dept. of Transportation including Specifications for Shipping Containers". (Available from the Association of American Railroads, Bureau of Explosives, American Railroads Bldg., 1920 L Street, NW, Washington, D.C. 20036. DOT 39 DISPOSABLE CYLINDERS FOR AUTO EMISSION STANDARD CYLINDER DOT-39 HEIGHT 16]” DIAMETER 9” WATER CAPACITY 3.3 GALS. CUBIC INCHES 692 SERVICE PRESS 260 PSIG PROOF PRESS 325 PSIG GAL VOL. 7, 5 cu. FT. @ 260 PSIG VALVE BRASS OUTLET [" SAE FLARE Regulator is pre-set @ 5 PSI has female ("SAE connection outlet and comes with 6 ft., of plastic tubing. DOT - 39 MIXTURES 1. 3 component Propane, Carbon Monoxide, Nitrogen (500 + ppm Propane, % Range carbon Monoxide). 2. 3 component Hexane, carbon Monoxide, Nitrogen (500 + ppm Hexane, % Range Carbon Monoxide). E EMISSION GASES - 1. Making gas mixtures for automotive emission analyzer calibration purposes often requires "cross referencing" with standards used by the customer. 2. Most engine exhaust emission standards require mixtures with a mixing accuracy of +5% and an analytical accuracy of ±2% or± 1% accuracy to a NIS standard. EPITAXY - See Chemical Vapor Deposition. ETHANE - Uses: Antiknock compound for gasoline, as a refrigerant, and in manufacturing Halogenated Ethanes. ETHYL CHLORIDE - Uses: Ripening of bananas (See Banana Gas) and citrus fruits, welding, growing plants, manufacturing plastics and in organic synthesis. ETHYLENE OXIDE - Uses: Manufacture of chemicals, pharmaceuticals and organic synthesis. The main usage, both in the pure and mixed states is as a sterilant. Ethylene Oxide is one of the components of 8812 Sterilizing Gas (12% Ethylene Oxide 88%, Halocarbon 12). Used by hospital manufacturers of disposable and plastic hospital supplies, pulp and paper manufacturers, starch manufacturers, textile manufacturers, manufacturers of packaging for food (individual serving cups for cream, salad dressing, etc.) WARNING - When a hospital orders "Ethylene Oxide" 999 times out of 1,000 they do not want pure Ethylene Oxide. Question them 1 they probably have a gas sterilizer which needs a mixture of 12% Ethylene Oxide, balance Halocarbon Ethylene Oxide is flammable and could result in a hazardous condition if used in such a sterilizer. Ethylene Oxide in the pure state is also used as a sterilizing medium; usually in very specialized operations - starch manufacturing for example. This product polymerizes so it has a very limited shelf life. F FREON - (Registered trademark of DuPont), see Halocarbon. FLUOROCARBONS - See Halocarbons FIBKR OPTICS - See data end of Glossary FID MIXTURE - (Linde Terminology) Airco trademark - Nitrifuel. (Flame ionization detector mixture). These are mixtures of zero grade gases - low hydrocarbon content. The identical mixture of commercial grade gases will not perform with a FID machine - Additionally it may contaminate the machine. The mixtures are: 40% Hydrogen Zero, Bal. Nitrogen Zero 40% Hydrogen Zero, Bal. Helium Zero FLAME RESISTANCE OF CLOTH TEST GAS - Federal test method 5903-2. A mix to test resistance of cloth to fire. 3% Ethane 13% Carbon Monoxide 24% Methane 55% Hydrogen Specific Gravity 0.380 BTU per cu. ft. 539 FRUIT RIPENING GAS - Used to initiate the degreening or ripening of some fruits and vegetables H HALOCARBON 11 - TRICHLOROFLUOROMETHANE - Uses: Refrigerant, solvent, propellant and chemical intermediate. HALOCARBON 12 - DICHLORODIFLUOROMETHANE - Uses: Refrigerant and propellant in aerosol containers. The main use, however, is in OYXFUME 12 to provide the background or carrier gas for Ethylene Oxide. HALOCARBON 13 - CHLOROTRIFLUOROMETHANE - Uses: Refrigerant. HALOCARBON 13Bl - BROMOTRIFLUOROMETHANE - Uses: Chemical intermediate and fire extinguishing agent=. (Particularly on boats). HALOCARBON 14 - TETRAFLUOROMETHANE - (CARBON TETRAFLUORIDE) Uses: Refrigerant. HALOCARBON 21 - DICHLOROFLUOROMETHANE - Uses: Refrigerant, solvent, aerosol propellant. HALOCARBON 22 - CHLORODIFLUOROMETHANE - Uses: Refrigerant and aerosol propellant. HALOCARBON 23 - FLUOROFORM - TRIFLUOROMETHANE - Uses: Refrigerant and chemical in organic synthesis. HALOCARBON 113- 1, 1, 2-TRICHLOROTRIFLOUROETHANE- Uses: Refrigerant, solvent for oil and film processing, chemical intermediate. HALOCARBON 114 – 1, 2 DICHLOROTETRAGLOUROETHANE - Uses: Refrigerant and propellant. HALOCARBON 115 – CHLOROPENTAFLOUROETHANE - Uses: Refrigerant, propellant and intermediate HALOCARBON 116 – HEXAFLOURETHANE – “HFE” Dielectric Grade Uses: Propellant. Also, used as insulating gas for TV transmitting towers. Sulfur Hexafluoride can be substituted. Also used to insulate high voltage power lines. Halo 116 and Sulfur Hexafluoride can mix with no problems. HALOCARBON 142B - 1, CHLORO - 1, DIFLUOROETHANE - Uses: Refrigerant, solvent and aerosol propellant. Halocarbon 142B is widely used by manufacturer of some type of electrical switches, the material must then be to "GE Specifications". Halo 142B can be supplied to this specification at a different price. HALOCARBON 152A 1, 1 DIFLUROETBANE - Uses: Aerosol propellant, solvent and refrigerant. HALOCARBON C-318 OCTAFLUOROCYCLOBUTANE - Uses: Foam producing agent, dielectric insulator and aerosol propellant. HALOCARBON 1132A 1, l DIFLUOROETHYLENE - Uses: Polymerizing agent (in plastic) and chemical intermediate, Other HALOCARBONS not listed can be special ordered under certain circumstances. HELIUM - Research Grade 99.9999% Purity is available. Total impurities are less than 1 ppm. UHP Helium is also used in chromatography. IIEXAFLUOROETHANE - See Halocarbon 116. HYDROGEN - UHP Hydrogen used in gas chromatography. Semiconductor and ULSI Purity with special analysis is used in Semiconductor work. Prepurified with moisture certification is used by nuclear power plants. HYDROGEN BROMIDE - ANHYDROUS HYDROBROMIC ACID Uses: Reagent and Catalyst. HYDROGEN CHLORIDE - ANHYDROUS HYDROCHLORIC l\.CID - Semiconductor and ULSI Purity - used for etching semiconductor crystals Technical Purity. Uses: Chemical intermediate, rubber, manufacturing, chloride manufacturing, cotton and wool processing catalyst, and oil manufacturing. HYDROGEN FLUORIDE - Uses: Catalyst, fluorinating agent, alkylation catalyst in petroleum, etching and polishing glass and manufacturing aluminum fluoride. HYDROGEN IODIDE - Uses: Manufacture of hydriodic acid and iodides. HYDROGEN SELENIDE - Uses: Preparation of metallic selenides and organ selenium compounds. In mixtures as a doping gas in the electronic industry for preparing semiconductor materials. HYDROGEN SULFIDE - Uses: Metallurgical operations for metallic sulfides and in metals separation, as an oil additive and a reagent. I IODINE PENTAFLUORIDE - Uses: As a fluorinating agent and an incendiary agent. ISOBUTANE - Uses: Calibration work in instrumentation (both pure and as a mixture), filling of thermobulbs for temperature and pressure gauges and an intermediate in manufacturing aviation fuel and organic chemicals, ISOBUTYLENE - Uses: Organic synthesis, production of aviation fuel. Major Use: Manufacture of Butyl Rubber. K KILOPASCAL- Unit of pressure equivalent to 0.0099 atmospheres or 0.1455 psi. KRYPTON - Uses: Electronic and lighting. Major component in the manufacture of long-life light bulbs. L LUNG DIFFUSION MIXTURE - Gas mixtures specially prepared to calibrate equipment used to measure the amount of carbon monoxide diffused through healthy versus unhealthy lungs. Mixtures consist essentially of oxygen and nitrogen in the same quantities as air with small. Amounts of carbon monoxide. Some mixtures include small amounts of neon, helium or acetylene. It is estimated that approximately half of the 10,000 hospitals in the country have lung machines. M MEDICAL PRODUCTS - Information on some individual products follows. -ACETYLENE - Purified (for blood analysis with AA equipment) AEROBIC MIXTURES -ANAEROBIC CARBON DIOXIDE -CALIBRATION MIXTURES FOR BLOOD ANALYSIS EQUIPMENT -LUNG DIFFUSION (PULMONARY FUNCTION) MIXTURES -METHANE - Blood analysis, flame photometry -NITROUS OXIDE USP - Anesthesia and AA analysis PROPANE INSTRUMENT - Blood analysis -UHP PURE GASES (Oxygen, helium, etc.) for chromatographic analysis. Special quotations on mixtures, pure products, packages, purities, etc., are available upon request. METHANE - Uses: Commercial is used by hospitals as a fuel in blood test machines. CP is used as a BTU standard for testing BTU equipment. UHP is used in electronics applications. All grades are used for testing equipment which uses natural gas as a fuel. METHYL ACETYLENE - Uses: Organic synthesis, and special fuel applications. METHYL BROMIDE - Uses: As a fumigant in both pure state and as ·a mixture. As a solvent, refrigerant, in organic synthesis and as a fire extinguishing agent in special systems on aircrafts. 3 METHYLBUTENE - 1 - Uses: Organic synthesis and high octane fuel additive. METHYL CHLORIDE - Uses: Refrigerant, catalyst, solvent, reagent. Methyl Chloride is also used (sometimes along with Halocarbon 142B) in the manufacture of thermoswitches and gauges. It is available to "GE Specs" at special pricing. METHYL FLUORIDE - Uses: As an aerosol propellant additive and in chemical research. METHYL MERCAPTAN - Uses: Organic synthesis, chemical intermediate and odorant. Methyl mercapta, produced by nature in minute quantities, gives cheddar cheese its characteristic flavor. MONOMETHYLAMINE - Uses: Tanning, dyes, synthetic fabrics and organic synthesis. THE ABOVE TWO PRODUCTS AR EASILY CONFUSED! MANIFOLDS - Refer to page 141-156 of the R&SG catalog. Modular construction of these manifolds allows for faster delivery and flexibility for customer requirements. N NATURAL GAS - Uses: Fuel Synthetic natural gas - to simulate natural gas from various sources. Manufacturers of heating equipment, air conditioners, etc. for export often. Require a special mix for test purposes. NEON – Uses: Lighting, electron tubes, signs, spark chambers, refrigeration and gas lasers, NITRIC OXIDE - POISON - Uses: The major use is in Chemical Synthesis, gas mixtures for testing emission and air pollution equipment. NITROGEN - There are seven grades of nitrogen listed in the Specialty Gas Catalog. Uses: In chromatography, blanketing, semiconductor work, (there is a special specification for semiconductor purity nitrogen which varies with the user). NITROGEN DIOXIDE - POISON - Uses: Manufacture of Alkali nitrites, as an oxidant in special fuels. Major use is in mixture for pollution and emission test equipment. NITROSYL CHLORIDE - Uses: Synthesis of organic compounds - usually in research labs. NITROUS OXIDE - Uses: Anesthesia, propellant for aerosols, fuel for AA spectrophotometers. NO, N20, NOX - Chemical symbols for different, easily confused products. NO - Nitric Oxide N02 - Nitrogen Dioxide NO2 - Nitrogen Dioxide N20 - Nitrous Oxide NOX - All of above Oxides of Nitrogen Ask for the specific product. O OCTAFLUOROCYCLOBUTANE - See Halocarbon C318 OXYGEN - Uses: Gas chromatography (UHP HC Free of Zero), mixtures where purity or moisture is a factor. As an oxidizing agent in chemical synthesis. P PENN GAS - Trademark of Pennsylvania Engineering Company for 88/12 sterilizing gas. PERFLUORO-2-BUTENE - Uses: As a polymer and chemical intermediate. PERFLUOROPROPANE - Uses: High voltage insulator. Etchant. PHOSGENE - POISON - Uses: In manufacture of dyes pharmaceuticals, insecticides, synthetic foam, resins and plastics. PHOSPHINE - POISON - Uses: In both pure and mixed state as a doping gas in the electronics industry. PHOSPHORUS PENTAFLUORIDE - Uses: Catalyst and polymerization. POLYMER or POLYMERIZATION - A natural reaction of a gas or liquid wherein it thickens (polymerizes) into a stickly or solid mass. Plastic ware is a result of the polymerization process. PPB - Parts per Billion PPM - Parts per Million PROPANE - Uses: Fuel, solvent, refrigerant. Instrument grade Propane is used in hospitals for fuel in blood test work. PROPYLENE - Uses: Organic synthesis in the production of propyl compounds, and as a basis for plastics. R RADIOACTIVE GA.SES OR MIXTURES: Certain radioactive gases and mixtures are available from Airco Specialty Gases. Federal regulations specify that anyone handling radioactive gases must have a license to order and handle these materials. S Safety - Safety in the handling of Specialty Gases is of paramount importance. Certain mixtures can only be made to certain pressures for various reasons. Also, there are limits to the amount of one gas which can be mixed with another. Any mixture which appears unsafe will be checked by our Mixture Approval Committee, Riverton, NJ. If there is a limitation or if the gases cannot be safely mixed, the Committee will advise before the order is entered. SHIPPING - Poisons cannot be transported on the same vehicle with flammables or corrosives per DOT Tariff 27 Ser. 177.840 and 177.848. SILANE - Semiconductor and ULSI Purity Uses: Both in pure and mixed states used in the electronics industry for epitaxial and doping work, and for the formation of high purity silicon oxides. The Matheson. Product is the highest quality silane available today. Purity is typically specified by the sheet resistivity of an Epitaxial film deposited from the gas in ohm cm, SILICON TETRACHLORIDE - Liquid with a low vapor pressure used on a silicone source for Epitaxy in Electronic Manufacturing. Airco can supply. SILICON TETRAFLUORIDE - Uses: Manufacture of fluosilicic acid which in turn is used in water fluoridation, and in producing aluminum fluoride. SULFUR DIOXIDE - Uses: Mixtures are used extensively in checking equipment for air pollution and emission monitoring. It is also a component of the compound used for flame retardants necessary in the manufacturing of ·bedding, children's sleepwear and toys, automobile upholstery, and many textiles. In the food industry, it is used in bleaching cherries, to halt fermentation in grapes for winemaking, as a preservative for beer, wine and meats, as a fumigant in bleaching paper and fumigating pulp, as a disinfectant, and in tanning. Used as a neutralizer in chrome plating. SULFUR HEXAFLUORIDE - Uses: Non-toxic gas used as a dielectric in transformers; and high voltage switchgear. High voltage transmission lines are also a new application for SF6. SF6 is a replacement for air or N2 in loudspeakers_ Typical users are electric utilities and power components. SF6 will replace transformer oil in some dielectric applications. SULFUR TETRAFLUORIDE - Uses: Manufacture of fluorinated materials. SULFURYL FLUORIDE - Uses: Catalyst, and fluorocarbon compound manufacture. It is also used as a fumigant, particularly for termites. The patent rights for application of this product as a fumigant are owned by Dow Chemical Co. T TRICHLOROFLUOROMETHANE - See Halocarbon 11 1, 1, 2 TRICBLORO - 1, 2, 2 TRIFLUOROETHANE - See Halocarbon 113 TRIMETHYLAMINE - Uses: In the manufacture of disinfectants and as a corrosion inhibitor. U ULTRA ZERO AIR - See Air, Hydrocarbon Free V VALVES - The Compressed Gas Association (CGA) has specifications for valve outlet connections for PURE Gases that have been adopted by the Federal Government Department of Transportation (DOT) - eg. The CGA has not adopted a standard for all gas mixtures to date. This is being worked on presently ad hopefully will be resolved soon. Matheson has representatives on the CGA valve outlet committees which helps keep us up to date with regard to current thinking on the matter of the gas industry. VINYL BROMIDE - Uses: Manufacture of plastics VINYL CHLORIDE - Pure material (not marketed, however, mixtures are provided to industry for monitory purposes). VINYL FLUORIDE - Uses: Chemical intermediate and polymer in plastics manufacture. VINYL METHYL ETHER - Uses: Polymer in plastics manufacture. X XENON - (pronounced Zeenon) Uses: In electronics and special application lighting. Z ZERO GAS – Denotes hydrocarbon content. See specific gas -- Air Zero, Oxygen Zero, etc.